Learning conceptual subjects (such as Mathematics) requires learners to link more advanced concepts they are building to foundational concepts they have already understood. If these foundational concepts are shaky, they can start to fall further and further behind until they no longer believe they can “do” the work. These gaps
(the difference between what learners are supposed to know in their grade and what they really know) are called learning gaps. This is not due an intellectual deficit (inability to learn), but rather due to a lack of quality learning experiences (opportunity to learn). This can happen if a learner is absent from school, unhappy or distracted,
experiencing changes in teachers, classes or schools – so in other words, it can happen in any school!

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